HiSET Reading Practice Test

Try our free HiSET Reading practice test. The reading test is part of the Language Arts section of the HiSET high school equivalency test. It includes 40 multiple-choice questions which must be answered within 65 minutes. You will be given a variety of literary and informational passages to read, and then you will be asked several questions about each passage. The questions will focus on reading comprehension, interpretation, and analysis. Get started on your HiSET Reading test prep with these free practice questions.

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Question 1

Getting Started with Yoga

There are many styles of yoga taught in the western world. Some styles emphasize power and are physically challenging, while others are more meditative in nature. The style you choose should be based on your intentions for practicing yoga. Many students start yoga simply for the value of balanced exercise, since there is equal emphasis on strength and flexibility. After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice, such as pranayama, or breathing techniques, which can be excellent for relaxation.

Once you’ve decided which style you want to study, you have to find a class. Some students just choose a yoga studio that is easy to get to, or has free parking. But even if you do this, there will probably be several teachers offering classes. It can be tricky to find the right teacher.

Yoga teachers can become certified by taking a course, although there is no standardized certification offered by any state or by the federal government. While many yoga teachers earn their certifications after years of practice, others may become “certified” after a few weeks or months of training. As a result, many yoga studios do not require their teachers to have any particular training, and if they do, students may not know exactly what the certification reflects.

How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful. Students can also try a class to decide if that teacher is a good fit. In the end, the choice of a teacher has many different facets, not all of which will be as important to all students. What works well for you might not work well for your best friend. In addition, as you grow as a yoga student, you may decide to switch teachers.
 
What is the main idea of this passage?

A
Yoga is good exercise.
B
There are many different yoga styles.
C
Good teachers may or may not be certified.
D
Yoga classes offer many choices.
Question 1 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The main idea of a passage is usually (but not always) found in the first paragraph. In this case, the first paragraph briefly describes yoga before moving into a more thorough discussion of yoga classes and the options they provide. Yoga classes and teachers are clearly the focus of this passage, since they are discussed in greater detail than other topics. Answer choices (A) and (B) are primarily described in the first paragraph, and answer choice (C) is primarily discussed in paragraph 3.
Question 2

Getting Started with Yoga

There are many styles of yoga taught in the western world. Some styles emphasize power and are physically challenging, while others are more meditative in nature. The style you choose should be based on your intentions for practicing yoga. Many students start yoga simply for the value of balanced exercise, since there is equal emphasis on strength and flexibility. After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice, such as pranayama, or breathing techniques, which can be excellent for relaxation.

Once you’ve decided which style you want to study, you have to find a class. Some students just choose a yoga studio that is easy to get to, or has free parking. But even if you do this, there will probably be several teachers offering classes. It can be tricky to find the right teacher.

Yoga teachers can become certified by taking a course, although there is no standardized certification offered by any state or by the federal government. While many yoga teachers earn their certifications after years of practice, others may become “certified” after a few weeks or months of training. As a result, many yoga studios do not require their teachers to have any particular training, and if they do, students may not know exactly what the certification reflects.

How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful. Students can also try a class to decide if that teacher is a good fit. In the end, the choice of a teacher has many different facets, not all of which will be as important to all students. What works well for you might not work well for your best friend. In addition, as you grow as a yoga student, you may decide to switch teachers.
 
The author of this passage would most likely agree with which statement below?

A
Certification for yoga teachers is vital.
B
“No pain, no gain” is true in yoga, too.
C
Good western yoga classes should include breathing exercises.
D
There is no teacher who is “best” for all students.
Question 2 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). In the final paragraph, the author discusses methods for selecting an appropriate yoga teacher. The author specifically states, “What works well for you might not work well for your best friend.” Because of this, it is likely that the author would agree with answer choice (D).
Question 3

Getting Started with Yoga

There are many styles of yoga taught in the western world. Some styles emphasize power and are physically challenging, while others are more meditative in nature. The style you choose should be based on your intentions for practicing yoga. Many students start yoga simply for the value of balanced exercise, since there is equal emphasis on strength and flexibility. After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice, such as pranayama, or breathing techniques, which can be excellent for relaxation.

Once you’ve decided which style you want to study, you have to find a class. Some students just choose a yoga studio that is easy to get to, or has free parking. But even if you do this, there will probably be several teachers offering classes. It can be tricky to find the right teacher.

Yoga teachers can become certified by taking a course, although there is no standardized certification offered by any state or by the federal government. While many yoga teachers earn their certifications after years of practice, others may become “certified” after a few weeks or months of training. As a result, many yoga studios do not require their teachers to have any particular training, and if they do, students may not know exactly what the certification reflects.

How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful. Students can also try a class to decide if that teacher is a good fit. In the end, the choice of a teacher has many different facets, not all of which will be as important to all students. What works well for you might not work well for your best friend. In addition, as you grow as a yoga student, you may decide to switch teachers.
 
Of the choices below, it can be inferred from this passage that the author most likely

A
is a student.
B
has taught yoga.
C
is a physical fitness teacher.
D
owns a yoga studio.
Question 3 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Only a teacher, or someone well versed in yoga and yoga classes, would know the content mentioned in the passage. We cannot infer that the author is a physical fitness teacher because the author focuses only on yoga. The author is probably not a student because it is rare to see a student write or speak authoritatively on a subject that they are still learning. Nothing in the passage suggests that the author owns a yoga studio.
Question 4

Getting Started with Yoga

There are many styles of yoga taught in the western world. Some styles emphasize power and are physically challenging, while others are more meditative in nature. The style you choose should be based on your intentions for practicing yoga. Many students start yoga simply for the value of balanced exercise, since there is equal emphasis on strength and flexibility. After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice, such as pranayama, or breathing techniques, which can be excellent for relaxation.

Once you’ve decided which style you want to study, you have to find a class. Some students just choose a yoga studio that is easy to get to, or has free parking. But even if you do this, there will probably be several teachers offering classes. It can be tricky to find the right teacher.

Yoga teachers can become certified by taking a course, although there is no standardized certification offered by any state or by the federal government. While many yoga teachers earn their certifications after years of practice, others may become “certified” after a few weeks or months of training. As a result, many yoga studios do not require their teachers to have any particular training, and if they do, students may not know exactly what the certification reflects.

How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful. Students can also try a class to decide if that teacher is a good fit. In the end, the choice of a teacher has many different facets, not all of which will be as important to all students. What works well for you might not work well for your best friend. In addition, as you grow as a yoga student, you may decide to switch teachers.
 
In paragraph 1, the writer mentions pranayama to

A
indicate that yoga is a deep practice, with many levels.
B
prove that a student can learn how to relax by studying yoga.
C
interest the readers, so they read the rest of the passage.
D
show that she is an expert, since she knows this specialized vocabulary word.
Question 4 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The author states that “After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice such as pranayama…” From this, we can infer that the author mentions pranayama to suggest that yoga has several aspects or levels. Although it is mentioned that pranayama can be useful for relaxation, that is not the main reason why the author mentions it. Answer choices (C) and (D) are both too extreme to be reasonable answers.
Question 5

Getting Started with Yoga

There are many styles of yoga taught in the western world. Some styles emphasize power and are physically challenging, while others are more meditative in nature. The style you choose should be based on your intentions for practicing yoga. Many students start yoga simply for the value of balanced exercise, since there is equal emphasis on strength and flexibility. After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice, such as pranayama, or breathing techniques, which can be excellent for relaxation.

Once you’ve decided which style you want to study, you have to find a class. Some students just choose a yoga studio that is easy to get to, or has free parking. But even if you do this, there will probably be several teachers offering classes. It can be tricky to find the right teacher.

Yoga teachers can become certified by taking a course, although there is no standardized certification offered by any state or by the federal government. While many yoga teachers earn their certifications after years of practice, others may become “certified” after a few weeks or months of training. As a result, many yoga studios do not require their teachers to have any particular training, and if they do, students may not know exactly what the certification reflects.

How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful. Students can also try a class to decide if that teacher is a good fit. In the end, the choice of a teacher has many different facets, not all of which will be as important to all students. What works well for you might not work well for your best friend. In addition, as you grow as a yoga student, you may decide to switch teachers.
 
Which of the following is a recommendation the author makes for new yoga students?

A
Find a yoga studio with free parking.
B
Start with a beginner class before trying hatha flow.
C
Meditation is a good practice to use with yoga.
D
Getting a suggestion from a friend is one way to find a teacher.
Question 5 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). In the final paragraph, the author asks, “How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful.” The author mentions that some studios offer free parking, but does not recommend new students exclusively go to studios with free parking. Neither hatha flow nor meditation is recommended to new students.
Question 6

Getting Started with Yoga

There are many styles of yoga taught in the western world. Some styles emphasize power and are physically challenging, while others are more meditative in nature. The style you choose should be based on your intentions for practicing yoga. Many students start yoga simply for the value of balanced exercise, since there is equal emphasis on strength and flexibility. After a while, they may become interested in other aspects of the practice, such as pranayama, or breathing techniques, which can be excellent for relaxation.

Once you’ve decided which style you want to study, you have to find a class. Some students just choose a yoga studio that is easy to get to, or has free parking. But even if you do this, there will probably be several teachers offering classes. It can be tricky to find the right teacher.

Yoga teachers can become certified by taking a course, although there is no standardized certification offered by any state or by the federal government. While many yoga teachers earn their certifications after years of practice, others may become “certified” after a few weeks or months of training. As a result, many yoga studios do not require their teachers to have any particular training, and if they do, students may not know exactly what the certification reflects.

How does a student select a good yoga teacher? Word-of-mouth referrals are always helpful. Students can also try a class to decide if that teacher is a good fit. In the end, the choice of a teacher has many different facets, not all of which will be as important to all students. What works well for you might not work well for your best friend. In addition, as you grow as a yoga student, you may decide to switch teachers.
 
Basic information about the qualifications for yoga instructors can be found in which of the following paragraphs?

A
The first paragraph
B
The second paragraph
C
The third paragraph
D
The fourth paragraph
Question 6 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). In the third paragraph, the author focuses on yoga teachers, explaining how some teachers are certified, while others are not. The author gives background information on the qualifications of yoga teachers. The fourth paragraph is not about teacher qualifications, focusing instead on how to find a good yoga teacher.
Question 7

Differing Views
by Annalise Gulstad

Bubbles squeak out from beneath my feet,
My toes mingle with the mud,
The tiny creek babbles beside me.

Above my head a little brown wren chatters angrily down,
Her chirps of frustration do little along the lines of moving me along,
I breathe out and see her chirping as part of nature’s song.

Pondering her view of the forest creek as compared to mine I consider,
What a great beast I must seem, tromping through the mud,
Unlike the deer each of my footfalls lands with a thud.

Meanwhile she flits around between the branches,
Silent but for her song which she raises in fear,
Snatching bugs between the rough bark.

What I had found to be a sweet reprieve,
She perceived as a dangerous siege.

 
The description in the first stanza implies the author is

A
wearing hiking boots
B
wearing sneakers
C
wearing flip flops
D
barefoot
Question 7 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The stanza says that the author’s toes “mingle with the mud.” This implies the author is most likely not wearing any type of shoes.
Question 8

Differing Views
by Annalise Gulstad

Bubbles squeak out from beneath my feet,
My toes mingle with the mud,
The tiny creek babbles beside me.

Above my head a little brown wren chatters angrily down,
Her chirps of frustration do little along the lines of moving me along,
I breathe out and see her chirping as part of nature’s song.

Pondering her view of the forest creek as compared to mine I consider,
What a great beast I must seem, tromping through the mud,
Unlike the deer each of my footfalls lands with a thud.

Meanwhile she flits around between the branches,
Silent but for her song which she raises in fear,
Snatching bugs between the rough bark.

What I had found to be a sweet reprieve,
She perceived as a dangerous siege.

 
What is implied about the author from her experience?

A
She does not feel comfortable in her own skin.
B
She chatters as much as the wren does.
C
She knows the animals have a unique perspective.
D
She is damaging the forest by her presence.
Question 8 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The author writes: “I breathe out and see her chirping as part of natures song. / Pondering her view of the forest creek as compared to mine I consider, / What a great beast I must seem, tromping through the mud….” The “her” is the wren, so the author believes the wren sees “a great beast” when looking down at the author from above. The author is able to see herself through the wren’s perspective. This is also emphasized in the final stanza.
Question 9

Differing Views
by Annalise Gulstad

Bubbles squeak out from beneath my feet,
My toes mingle with the mud,
The tiny creek babbles beside me.

Above my head a little brown wren chatters angrily down,
Her chirps of frustration do little along the lines of moving me along,
I breathe out and see her chirping as part of nature’s song.

Pondering her view of the forest creek as compared to mine I consider,
What a great beast I must seem, tromping through the mud,
Unlike the deer each of my footfalls lands with a thud.

Meanwhile she flits around between the branches,
Silent but for her song which she raises in fear,
Snatching bugs between the rough bark.

What I had found to be a sweet reprieve,
She perceived as a dangerous siege.

 
The poem ends with the sense of the speaker’s

A
joy at being in such a beautiful environment
B
greater understanding of the wren
C
dismay over her destruction of the environment
D
relief to be leaving the forest
Question 9 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The author contrasts her own positive experience in the forest with the alarm she causes the wren. This shows the author has a wider understanding than her own point of view. The author does feel joy at the start of the poem, but this gives way to a humbler, more self-aware tone by the end.
Question 10

Differing Views
by Annalise Gulstad

Bubbles squeak out from beneath my feet,
My toes mingle with the mud,
The tiny creek babbles beside me.

Above my head a little brown wren chatters angrily down,
Her chirps of frustration do little along the lines of moving me along,
I breathe out and see her chirping as part of nature’s song.

Pondering her view of the forest creek as compared to mine I consider,
What a great beast I must seem, tromping through the mud,
Unlike the deer each of my footfalls lands with a thud.

Meanwhile she flits around between the branches,
Silent but for her song which she raises in fear,
Snatching bugs between the rough bark.

What I had found to be a sweet reprieve,
She perceived as a dangerous siege.

 
The author believes she is most like

A
a wren
B
a deer
C
a beast
D
a bug
Question 10 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The author calls herself “a great beast,” indicating how she appears to the wren. She does not identify with the wren itself; rather, she emphasizes how she and the wren have different points of view. She also says she is “unlike” the deer, so (B) is incorrect. Bugs are mentioned in the passage, but the author does not compare herself to them.
Question 11

Differing Views
by Annalise Gulstad

Bubbles squeak out from beneath my feet,
My toes mingle with the mud,
The tiny creek babbles beside me.

Above my head a little brown wren chatters angrily down,
Her chirps of frustration do little along the lines of moving me along,
I breathe out and see her chirping as part of nature’s song.

Pondering her view of the forest creek as compared to mine I consider,
What a great beast I must seem, tromping through the mud,
Unlike the deer each of my footfalls lands with a thud.

Meanwhile she flits around between the branches,
Silent but for her song which she raises in fear,
Snatching bugs between the rough bark.

What I had found to be a sweet reprieve,
She perceived as a dangerous siege.

 
Read this sentence from poem:

What I had found to be a sweet reprieve, She perceived as a dangerous siege.
 
What is the meaning of reprieve in this sentence?

A
Relief
B
Affection
C
View
D
Revenge
Question 11 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). “Reprieve” means temporary relief from something that is uncomfortable or distressing.
Question 12

Quilting in Hawaii

Hawaiian quilts, such as those created by Marthe Marques and Helen Friend, reflect an eclectic blend of early American quilt making, Hawaiian tradition, island imagery, spiritual influences, current events, and modern vision. Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles. Her quilt, titled I ka Ho’okumuana (In the Beginning), depicts an aerial view of an erupting volcano constructed of appliqued red flames set against a black background fabric. This quilt embraces both the past and the future; it clearly falls within the provenance of a traditional Hawaiian quilt, and at the same time it challenges the boundaries of that definition.

While many historians claim that New England Missionaries brought quilting to the islands in 1820, it has been reported that Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe, long before the missionaries’ arrival. Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each made from a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.

With the arrival of the missionaries, Hawaiian quilters were introduced to American materials, quilting methods, and designs. The missionaries brought metal needles, cotton fabrics, and cotton thread to Hawaii. In addition, they taught the native women to work with both patchwork and applique quilting. In patchwork quilting, designs on the quilt’s top layer are created by piecing small bits of fabric together to form patterns, then overstitched with contrasting designs when the layers of the quilt are united. The top layers of applique quilts are decorated with pieces of fabric cut to form images and designs. While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, applique quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.
 
According to the passage, what is NOT something Helen Friend draws upon in her artwork?

A
Nature
B
Historical textiles
C
Current events
D
Politics
Question 12 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). In the first paragraph, the passage states, “Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles.” It does not indicate that Friend’s artwork is inspired by politics.
Question 13

Quilting in Hawaii

Hawaiian quilts, such as those created by Marthe Marques and Helen Friend, reflect an eclectic blend of early American quilt making, Hawaiian tradition, island imagery, spiritual influences, current events, and modern vision. Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles. Her quilt, titled I ka Ho’okumuana (In the Beginning), depicts an aerial view of an erupting volcano constructed of appliqued red flames set against a black background fabric. This quilt embraces both the past and the future; it clearly falls within the provenance of a traditional Hawaiian quilt, and at the same time it challenges the boundaries of that definition.

While many historians claim that New England Missionaries brought quilting to the islands in 1820, it has been reported that Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe, long before the missionaries’ arrival. Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each made from a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.

With the arrival of the missionaries, Hawaiian quilters were introduced to American materials, quilting methods, and designs. The missionaries brought metal needles, cotton fabrics, and cotton thread to Hawaii. In addition, they taught the native women to work with both patchwork and applique quilting. In patchwork quilting, designs on the quilt’s top layer are created by piecing small bits of fabric together to form patterns, then overstitched with contrasting designs when the layers of the quilt are united. The top layers of applique quilts are decorated with pieces of fabric cut to form images and designs. While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, applique quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.
 
What types of bed coverings were traditionally used by Hawaiian women, according to the passage?

A
I ka Ho’okumuana
B
Kapa moe
C
Appliqued quilts
D
Patchwork quilts
Question 13 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). In the second paragraph, the passage states that, “Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe.” The traditional European forms of quilt-making, such as applique and patchwork, were not part of the traditional Hawaiian culture. Choice (A) is the name of Helen Friend’s artwork, and not the name for a traditional Hawaiian quilt.
Question 14

Quilting in Hawaii

Hawaiian quilts, such as those created by Marthe Marques and Helen Friend, reflect an eclectic blend of early American quilt making, Hawaiian tradition, island imagery, spiritual influences, current events, and modern vision. Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles. Her quilt, titled I ka Ho’okumuana (In the Beginning), depicts an aerial view of an erupting volcano constructed of appliqued red flames set against a black background fabric. This quilt embraces both the past and the future; it clearly falls within the provenance of a traditional Hawaiian quilt, and at the same time it challenges the boundaries of that definition.

While many historians claim that New England Missionaries brought quilting to the islands in 1820, it has been reported that Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe, long before the missionaries’ arrival. Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each made from a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.

With the arrival of the missionaries, Hawaiian quilters were introduced to American materials, quilting methods, and designs. The missionaries brought metal needles, cotton fabrics, and cotton thread to Hawaii. In addition, they taught the native women to work with both patchwork and applique quilting. In patchwork quilting, designs on the quilt’s top layer are created by piecing small bits of fabric together to form patterns, then overstitched with contrasting designs when the layers of the quilt are united. The top layers of applique quilts are decorated with pieces of fabric cut to form images and designs. While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, applique quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.
 
Based on the discussion of the traditional Hawaiian bed coverings, which of the following steps would have been the most logical first step in their creation?

A
Stitching the layers together
B
Dying the tapa
C
Collecting the mulberry bark
D
Creating the geometric design
Question 14 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). The passage describes the kappa moe in the following sentences: “Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each made from a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.” Since the tapa used to make the layers was itself made from mulberry bark, it is most logical that the first step in creating the kapa moe would have been to collect the mulberry bark.
Question 15

Quilting in Hawaii

Hawaiian quilts, such as those created by Marthe Marques and Helen Friend, reflect an eclectic blend of early American quilt making, Hawaiian tradition, island imagery, spiritual influences, current events, and modern vision. Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles. Her quilt, titled I ka Ho’okumuana (In the Beginning), depicts an aerial view of an erupting volcano constructed of appliqued red flames set against a black background fabric. This quilt embraces both the past and the future; it clearly falls within the provenance of a traditional Hawaiian quilt, and at the same time it challenges the boundaries of that definition.

While many historians claim that New England Missionaries brought quilting to the islands in 1820, it has been reported that Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe, long before the missionaries’ arrival. Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each made from a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.

With the arrival of the missionaries, Hawaiian quilters were introduced to American materials, quilting methods, and designs. The missionaries brought metal needles, cotton fabrics, and cotton thread to Hawaii. In addition, they taught the native women to work with both patchwork and applique quilting. In patchwork quilting, designs on the quilt’s top layer are created by piecing small bits of fabric together to form patterns, then overstitched with contrasting designs when the layers of the quilt are united. The top layers of applique quilts are decorated with pieces of fabric cut to form images and designs. While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, applique quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.
 
It can be inferred from the passage that the author feels what way towards Helen Friend?

A
He believes she is an artist that has had more success than Marthe Marques
B
He sees her work as a mix of traditional and modern styles
C
He believes she is over-rated as an artist
D
He does not classify her as a Hawaiian quilter
Question 15 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The author states that Friend's work is “eclectic” in the first paragraph, and that her work embraces “both the past and the future.” Therefore, (B) is the correct inference. Choice (A) is incorrect because the passage gives no information about Marques. Choice (C) is too negative to reflect the author’s point of view, while (D) is contradicted by the passage, which states that Helen Friend is, in fact, a Hawaiian artist and a quilter.
Question 16

Quilting in Hawaii

Hawaiian quilts, such as those created by Marthe Marques and Helen Friend, reflect an eclectic blend of early American quilt making, Hawaiian tradition, island imagery, spiritual influences, current events, and modern vision. Helen Friend, a recognized contemporary Hawaiian artist, produces quilted artworks inspired by nature’s power, Hawaii’s natural environment, current events, and historic textiles. Her quilt, titled I ka Ho’okumuana (In the Beginning), depicts an aerial view of an erupting volcano constructed of appliqued red flames set against a black background fabric. This quilt embraces both the past and the future; it clearly falls within the provenance of a traditional Hawaiian quilt, and at the same time it challenges the boundaries of that definition.

While many historians claim that New England Missionaries brought quilting to the islands in 1820, it has been reported that Hawaiian women fashioned decorative bed coverings, called kapa moe, long before the missionaries’ arrival. Kapa moe were constructed from multiple layers of tapa, a paper-like fabric crafted from mulberry bark. The top layer of tapa was often dyed and decorated with beautiful geometric designs. The layers, each made from a large piece of fabric, were stitched together, possibly to provide additional resilience.

With the arrival of the missionaries, Hawaiian quilters were introduced to American materials, quilting methods, and designs. The missionaries brought metal needles, cotton fabrics, and cotton thread to Hawaii. In addition, they taught the native women to work with both patchwork and applique quilting. In patchwork quilting, designs on the quilt’s top layer are created by piecing small bits of fabric together to form patterns, then overstitched with contrasting designs when the layers of the quilt are united. The top layers of applique quilts are decorated with pieces of fabric cut to form images and designs. While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, applique quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.
 
According to the author, which of the following is true about applique quilting?

A
It relies heavily on colorful tiny geometric shapes
B
It uses small bits of fabric pierced together to make patterns
C
It permits more natural shapes and images
D
It allows for less creativity than patchwork quilting does
Question 16 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Applique quilting is contrasted with patchwork quilting in the final paragraph. The author states:

“While many patchwork quilts incorporate small geometric shapes in various colors aligned to form larger geometric shapes, applique quilting allows quilters to express more natural shapes and images.”

It is clear that answers (A) and (B) describe patchwork quilting, while (D) is not directly supported from the passage. If anything, the final sentence seems to indicate that applique quilting allows for MORE creativity than patchwork quilting.
Question 17

The Most Dangerous Game

“Off there to the right — somewhere — is a large island,” said Whitney. “It's rather a mystery —”

“What island is it?” Rainsford asked.

“The old charts call it ‘Ship-Trap Island’,” Whitney replied. “A suggestive name, isn't it? Sailors have a curious dread of the place. I don't know why. Some superstition —”

“Can't see it,” remarked Rainsford, trying to peer through the dank tropical night that was palpable as it pressed its thick warm blackness in upon the yacht.

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”

“Nor four yards,” admitted Rainsford. “Ugh! It's like moist black velvet.”

“It will be light enough in Rio,” promised Whitney. “We should make it in a few days. I hope the jaguar guns have come from Purdey's. We should have some good hunting up the Amazon. Great sport, hunting.”

“The best sport in the world,” agreed Rainsford.

“For the hunter,” amended Whitney. “Not for the jaguar.”

“Don't talk rot, Whitney," said Rainsford. “You're a big-game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels?”

“Perhaps the jaguar does,” observed Whitney.

“Bah! They've no understanding.”

“Even so, I rather think they understand one thing — fear. The fear of pain and the fear of death.”

“Nonsense,” laughed Rainsford. “This hot weather is making you soft, Whitney. Be a realist. The world is made up of two classes — the hunters and the huntees. Luckily, you and I are hunters.”
 
What is implied by the first sentence of the passage?

A
Whitney has been to the island before
B
Whitney has strong navigation skills
C
Whitney is more intelligent than Rainsford
D
Whitney has heard about the island, but not been there
Question 17 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Whitney calls the large island a “mystery,” and says it is out there “somewhere.” These words indicate he has not personally been to the island, but has heard about it. Nothing about his navigation skills or intelligence is strongly implied in this first line.
Question 18

The Most Dangerous Game

“Off there to the right — somewhere — is a large island,” said Whitney. “It's rather a mystery —”

“What island is it?” Rainsford asked.

“The old charts call it ‘Ship-Trap Island’,” Whitney replied. “A suggestive name, isn't it? Sailors have a curious dread of the place. I don't know why. Some superstition —”

“Can't see it,” remarked Rainsford, trying to peer through the dank tropical night that was palpable as it pressed its thick warm blackness in upon the yacht.

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”

“Nor four yards,” admitted Rainsford. “Ugh! It's like moist black velvet.”

“It will be light enough in Rio,” promised Whitney. “We should make it in a few days. I hope the jaguar guns have come from Purdey's. We should have some good hunting up the Amazon. Great sport, hunting.”

“The best sport in the world,” agreed Rainsford.

“For the hunter,” amended Whitney. “Not for the jaguar.”

“Don't talk rot, Whitney," said Rainsford. “You're a big-game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels?”

“Perhaps the jaguar does,” observed Whitney.

“Bah! They've no understanding.”

“Even so, I rather think they understand one thing — fear. The fear of pain and the fear of death.”

“Nonsense,” laughed Rainsford. “This hot weather is making you soft, Whitney. Be a realist. The world is made up of two classes — the hunters and the huntees. Luckily, you and I are hunters.”
 
What is the setting for the story?

A
A chilly night in the Amazon rainforest
B
A sweltering afternoon on the Amazon River
C
A humid night on the Caribbean Sea
D
A damp night in Rio de Janeiro
Question 18 Explanation: 
The correct choice is (C ). The setting is very clearly established when Whitney tells Rainsford, “...even you can’t see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”
Question 19

The Most Dangerous Game

“Off there to the right — somewhere — is a large island,” said Whitney. “It's rather a mystery —”

“What island is it?” Rainsford asked.

“The old charts call it ‘Ship-Trap Island’,” Whitney replied. “A suggestive name, isn't it? Sailors have a curious dread of the place. I don't know why. Some superstition —”

“Can't see it,” remarked Rainsford, trying to peer through the dank tropical night that was palpable as it pressed its thick warm blackness in upon the yacht.

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”

“Nor four yards,” admitted Rainsford. “Ugh! It's like moist black velvet.”

“It will be light enough in Rio,” promised Whitney. “We should make it in a few days. I hope the jaguar guns have come from Purdey's. We should have some good hunting up the Amazon. Great sport, hunting.”

“The best sport in the world,” agreed Rainsford.

“For the hunter,” amended Whitney. “Not for the jaguar.”

“Don't talk rot, Whitney," said Rainsford. “You're a big-game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels?”

“Perhaps the jaguar does,” observed Whitney.

“Bah! They've no understanding.”

“Even so, I rather think they understand one thing — fear. The fear of pain and the fear of death.”

“Nonsense,” laughed Rainsford. “This hot weather is making you soft, Whitney. Be a realist. The world is made up of two classes — the hunters and the huntees. Luckily, you and I are hunters.”
 
Read this sentence from the passage:

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”
 
The author uses this underlined statement to show that:

A
Whitney and Rainsford have hunted together in the past
B
Rainsford is a lucky shot
C
Whitney idolizes Rainsford
D
Rainsford is a ruthless hunter
Question 19 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The author uses this statement to show that Rainsford is an expert marksman and to show that Rainsford and Whitney have hunted together in the past.
Question 20

The Most Dangerous Game

“Off there to the right — somewhere — is a large island,” said Whitney. “It's rather a mystery —”

“What island is it?” Rainsford asked.

“The old charts call it ‘Ship-Trap Island’,” Whitney replied. “A suggestive name, isn't it? Sailors have a curious dread of the place. I don't know why. Some superstition —”

“Can't see it,” remarked Rainsford, trying to peer through the dank tropical night that was palpable as it pressed its thick warm blackness in upon the yacht.

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”

“Nor four yards,” admitted Rainsford. “Ugh! It's like moist black velvet.”

“It will be light enough in Rio,” promised Whitney. “We should make it in a few days. I hope the jaguar guns have come from Purdey's. We should have some good hunting up the Amazon. Great sport, hunting.”

“The best sport in the world,” agreed Rainsford.

“For the hunter,” amended Whitney. “Not for the jaguar.”

“Don't talk rot, Whitney," said Rainsford. “You're a big-game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels?”

“Perhaps the jaguar does,” observed Whitney.

“Bah! They've no understanding.”

“Even so, I rather think they understand one thing — fear. The fear of pain and the fear of death.”

“Nonsense,” laughed Rainsford. “This hot weather is making you soft, Whitney. Be a realist. The world is made up of two classes — the hunters and the huntees. Luckily, you and I are hunters.”
 
How do Rainsford and Whitney’s opinions on the jaguar differ?

A
Rainsford doesn’t believe jaguars have feelings
B
Whitney believes the jaguars emotions matter
C
Rainsford believes the jaguars are intelligent
D
Whitney believes the jaguars lack understanding
Question 20 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Rainsford and Whitney both indicate they believe the jaguar has emotions, but Rainsford doesn’t believe they have any “understanding.” Rainsford says, “who cares” how the jaguars feels, while Whitney says they do understand fear, so perhaps that should be taken into account.
Question 21

The Most Dangerous Game

“Off there to the right — somewhere — is a large island,” said Whitney. “It's rather a mystery —”

“What island is it?” Rainsford asked.

“The old charts call it ‘Ship-Trap Island’,” Whitney replied. “A suggestive name, isn't it? Sailors have a curious dread of the place. I don't know why. Some superstition —”

“Can't see it,” remarked Rainsford, trying to peer through the dank tropical night that was palpable as it pressed its thick warm blackness in upon the yacht.

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”

“Nor four yards,” admitted Rainsford. “Ugh! It's like moist black velvet.”

“It will be light enough in Rio,” promised Whitney. “We should make it in a few days. I hope the jaguar guns have come from Purdey's. We should have some good hunting up the Amazon. Great sport, hunting.”

“The best sport in the world,” agreed Rainsford.

“For the hunter,” amended Whitney. “Not for the jaguar.”

“Don't talk rot, Whitney," said Rainsford. “You're a big-game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels?”

“Perhaps the jaguar does,” observed Whitney.

“Bah! They've no understanding.”

“Even so, I rather think they understand one thing — fear. The fear of pain and the fear of death.”

“Nonsense,” laughed Rainsford. “This hot weather is making you soft, Whitney. Be a realist. The world is made up of two classes — the hunters and the huntees. Luckily, you and I are hunters.”
 
The description of the island creates a sense of:

A
Astonishment
B
Bewilderment
C
Foreboding
D
Serenity
Question 21 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Foreboding is a fearful apprehension or a feeling that something bad will happen. With the name Ship-Trap Island and the comment about “a curious dread of the place,” there is a sense that something bad may happen near this island.
Question 22

The Most Dangerous Game

“Off there to the right — somewhere — is a large island,” said Whitney. “It's rather a mystery —”

“What island is it?” Rainsford asked.

“The old charts call it ‘Ship-Trap Island’,” Whitney replied. “A suggestive name, isn't it? Sailors have a curious dread of the place. I don't know why. Some superstition —”

“Can't see it,” remarked Rainsford, trying to peer through the dank tropical night that was palpable as it pressed its thick warm blackness in upon the yacht.

“You've good eyes,” said Whitney, with a laugh, “and I've seen you pick off a moose moving in the brown fall bush at four hundred yards, but even you can't see four miles or so through a moonless Caribbean night.”

“Nor four yards,” admitted Rainsford. “Ugh! It's like moist black velvet.”

“It will be light enough in Rio,” promised Whitney. “We should make it in a few days. I hope the jaguar guns have come from Purdey's. We should have some good hunting up the Amazon. Great sport, hunting.”

“The best sport in the world,” agreed Rainsford.

“For the hunter,” amended Whitney. “Not for the jaguar.”

“Don't talk rot, Whitney," said Rainsford. “You're a big-game hunter, not a philosopher. Who cares how a jaguar feels?”

“Perhaps the jaguar does,” observed Whitney.

“Bah! They've no understanding.”

“Even so, I rather think they understand one thing — fear. The fear of pain and the fear of death.”

“Nonsense,” laughed Rainsford. “This hot weather is making you soft, Whitney. Be a realist. The world is made up of two classes — the hunters and the huntees. Luckily, you and I are hunters.”
 
Which of the following best describes Rainsford’s character?

A
Realistic and blunt
B
Bullying and aggressive
C
Sarcastic and jaded
D
Philosophical and practical
Question 22 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Rainsford tells Whitney to be “a realist.” This is obviously what he thinks is the best way to be, and is most likely how he himself views the world. He is very direct, or blunt, in how he speaks to Whitney, correcting him and offering his own opinions. He is not bullying Whitney, and Whitney is the one who is more philosophical and practical.
Question 23

Girl Scout Cookies

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities better places every step of the way.

Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912, and the Mistletoe Troop in Muskogee, Oklahoma first began baking cookies in its high school cafeteria as a service project shortly thereafter. The Girl Scouts began selling cookies to finance troop activities around 1917.

In July 1922, The American Girl magazine, published by Girl Scouts of the USA, featured an article by Florence E. Neil, a local director in Chicago, Illinois. Miss Neil provided a cookie recipe that had been given to the 2,000 Girl Scouts in her council. She estimated the approximate cost of ingredients for six- to seven-dozen cookies to be 26 to 36 cents. The cookies, she suggested, could be sold by troops for 25 or 30 cents per dozen.

In 1933, Girl Scouts from the Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them from the windows of the city’s gas and electric company. The price was just 23 cents for a box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24! These girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council. A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.

In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies. Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box. In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils.

Enthusiasm for Girl Scout Cookies spread nationwide. By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales. In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties: Sandwich, Shortbread, and Chocolate Mints (now known as Thin Mints). By 1966, a number of additional varieties were available. Among the best sellers were Chocolate Mints, Shortbread, and Peanut Butter Sandwich cookies. Girl Scout Cookies for sale during the 1970s included Thin Mints, Do-si-dos, and Trefoils, plus four other choices.

Early in the twenty-first century, several more improvements were made to the cookie program. New cookie box designs, introduced in fall of 2000, were bold and bright, capturing the spirit of Girl Scouting. Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher. And, much to the excitement of our youngest Girl Scouts, Daisies started selling cookies. Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
 
The details about the specific types of cookies sold serve to

A
highlight progress in the nutritional content of the cookies
B
show how the types of cookies sold have developed over time
C
explain why certain types of cookies are preferred over others
D
describe how the specific cookies are made and packaged
Question 23 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The passage mentions the types of cookies sold in each decade in order to explain when certain types of cookies were first introduced. Nutrition is only mentioned briefly in the final paragraph, and the passage does not discuss the preferences of cookies or how they are specifically made.
Question 24

Girl Scout Cookies

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities better places every step of the way.

Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912, and the Mistletoe Troop in Muskogee, Oklahoma first began baking cookies in its high school cafeteria as a service project shortly thereafter. The Girl Scouts began selling cookies to finance troop activities around 1917.

In July 1922, The American Girl magazine, published by Girl Scouts of the USA, featured an article by Florence E. Neil, a local director in Chicago, Illinois. Miss Neil provided a cookie recipe that had been given to the 2,000 Girl Scouts in her council. She estimated the approximate cost of ingredients for six- to seven-dozen cookies to be 26 to 36 cents. The cookies, she suggested, could be sold by troops for 25 or 30 cents per dozen.

In 1933, Girl Scouts from the Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them from the windows of the city’s gas and electric company. The price was just 23 cents for a box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24! These girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council. A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.

In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies. Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box. In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils.

Enthusiasm for Girl Scout Cookies spread nationwide. By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales. In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties: Sandwich, Shortbread, and Chocolate Mints (now known as Thin Mints). By 1966, a number of additional varieties were available. Among the best sellers were Chocolate Mints, Shortbread, and Peanut Butter Sandwich cookies. Girl Scout Cookies for sale during the 1970s included Thin Mints, Do-si-dos, and Trefoils, plus four other choices.

Early in the twenty-first century, several more improvements were made to the cookie program. New cookie box designs, introduced in fall of 2000, were bold and bright, capturing the spirit of Girl Scouting. Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher. And, much to the excitement of our youngest Girl Scouts, Daisies started selling cookies. Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
 
Based on details given in the passage, what could be a logical reason why the author wrote this passage?

A
To actively recruit new Girl Scouts
B
To thoroughly describe the types of cookies sold
C
To graciously boast about the success of the Girl Scout cookies
D
To comprehensively review the history of the Girl Scouts
Question 24 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). It is clear from the tone of the passage that the author approves of the Girl Scouts and is proud of the accomplishment of the Girl Scouts’ cookie sales, citing the development of “valuable life skills,” and the improvement of communities as a direct result of the program. It is reasonable to assume that the author is mildly boasting about the organization’s development and success. This answer best aligns with the descriptions provided in the first and last paragraphs of the passage. While it is true that a positive description of the program may encourage girls to join the scouts, it is not a primary purpose of the passage. Nor does the author thoroughly describe the cookies sold or the history of the scouts.
Question 25

Girl Scout Cookies

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities better places every step of the way.

Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912, and the Mistletoe Troop in Muskogee, Oklahoma first began baking cookies in its high school cafeteria as a service project shortly thereafter. The Girl Scouts began selling cookies to finance troop activities around 1917.

In July 1922, The American Girl magazine, published by Girl Scouts of the USA, featured an article by Florence E. Neil, a local director in Chicago, Illinois. Miss Neil provided a cookie recipe that had been given to the 2,000 Girl Scouts in her council. She estimated the approximate cost of ingredients for six- to seven-dozen cookies to be 26 to 36 cents. The cookies, she suggested, could be sold by troops for 25 or 30 cents per dozen.

In 1933, Girl Scouts from the Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them from the windows of the city’s gas and electric company. The price was just 23 cents for a box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24! These girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council. A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.

In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies. Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box. In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils.

Enthusiasm for Girl Scout Cookies spread nationwide. By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales. In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties: Sandwich, Shortbread, and Chocolate Mints (now known as Thin Mints). By 1966, a number of additional varieties were available. Among the best sellers were Chocolate Mints, Shortbread, and Peanut Butter Sandwich cookies. Girl Scout Cookies for sale during the 1970s included Thin Mints, Do-si-dos, and Trefoils, plus four other choices.

Early in the twenty-first century, several more improvements were made to the cookie program. New cookie box designs, introduced in fall of 2000, were bold and bright, capturing the spirit of Girl Scouting. Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher. And, much to the excitement of our youngest Girl Scouts, Daisies started selling cookies. Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
 
Read this sentence from the passage:

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities a better place every step of the way.
 
What is the meaning of iconic in this sentence?

A
Required by a rule
B
Pertaining to charity
C
Happening once a year
D
Widely recognized and well-established
Question 25 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). An icon is something that is revered or idolized. Iconic means "widely known and acknowledged, especially for distinctive excellence." There is no mention of a rule requiring the cookie sale to take place, nor mention of the sale functioning as a charity. The word annual, not iconic, indicates that the sale happens once a year.
Question 26

Girl Scout Cookies

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities better places every step of the way.

Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912, and the Mistletoe Troop in Muskogee, Oklahoma first began baking cookies in its high school cafeteria as a service project shortly thereafter. The Girl Scouts began selling cookies to finance troop activities around 1917.

In July 1922, The American Girl magazine, published by Girl Scouts of the USA, featured an article by Florence E. Neil, a local director in Chicago, Illinois. Miss Neil provided a cookie recipe that had been given to the 2,000 Girl Scouts in her council. She estimated the approximate cost of ingredients for six- to seven-dozen cookies to be 26 to 36 cents. The cookies, she suggested, could be sold by troops for 25 or 30 cents per dozen.

In 1933, Girl Scouts from the Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them from the windows of the city’s gas and electric company. The price was just 23 cents for a box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24! These girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council. A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.

In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies. Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box. In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils.

Enthusiasm for Girl Scout Cookies spread nationwide. By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales. In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties: Sandwich, Shortbread, and Chocolate Mints (now known as Thin Mints). By 1966, a number of additional varieties were available. Among the best sellers were Chocolate Mints, Shortbread, and Peanut Butter Sandwich cookies. Girl Scout Cookies for sale during the 1970s included Thin Mints, Do-si-dos, and Trefoils, plus four other choices.

Early in the twenty-first century, several more improvements were made to the cookie program. New cookie box designs, introduced in fall of 2000, were bold and bright, capturing the spirit of Girl Scouting. Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher. And, much to the excitement of our youngest Girl Scouts, Daisies started selling cookies. Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
 
Which of the following sentences states an opinion?

A
In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies.
B
By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales.
C
Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher.
D
Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
Question 26 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Choices (A), (B) and (C ) all state facts that are not subject to interpretation. Choice (D), meanwhile, is an opinion, since one could argue that Daisies might not “benefit greatly” from cookie sales.
Question 27

Girl Scout Cookies

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities better places every step of the way.

Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912, and the Mistletoe Troop in Muskogee, Oklahoma first began baking cookies in its high school cafeteria as a service project shortly thereafter. The Girl Scouts began selling cookies to finance troop activities around 1917.

In July 1922, The American Girl magazine, published by Girl Scouts of the USA, featured an article by Florence E. Neil, a local director in Chicago, Illinois. Miss Neil provided a cookie recipe that had been given to the 2,000 Girl Scouts in her council. She estimated the approximate cost of ingredients for six- to seven-dozen cookies to be 26 to 36 cents. The cookies, she suggested, could be sold by troops for 25 or 30 cents per dozen.

In 1933, Girl Scouts from the Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them from the windows of the city’s gas and electric company. The price was just 23 cents for a box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24! These girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council. A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.

In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies. Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box. In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils.

Enthusiasm for Girl Scout Cookies spread nationwide. By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales. In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties: Sandwich, Shortbread, and Chocolate Mints (now known as Thin Mints). By 1966, a number of additional varieties were available. Among the best sellers were Chocolate Mints, Shortbread, and Peanut Butter Sandwich cookies. Girl Scout Cookies for sale during the 1970s included Thin Mints, Do-si-dos, and Trefoils, plus four other choices.

Early in the twenty-first century, several more improvements were made to the cookie program. New cookie box designs, introduced in fall of 2000, were bold and bright, capturing the spirit of Girl Scouting. Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher. And, much to the excitement of our youngest Girl Scouts, Daisies started selling cookies. Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
 
What are two details the reader can learn about the Girl Scouts from this passage?

A
The year in which the Girl Scouts was founded and the number of cookie varieties available in 1951.
B
The name of the founder of the Girl Scouts and the most profitable cookie type.
C
The place where Girl Scout cookies were first sold and the current price of a box of Girl Scout cookies.
D
The average number of boxes of cookies sold per Girl Scout and whether Daisies are allowed to sell Girl Scout cookies.
Question 27 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The second paragraph states, “Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912...” The sixth paragraph states, “In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties…”
Question 28

Girl Scout Cookies

For nearly 100 years, Girl Scouts and their enthusiastic supporters have helped ensure the success of the iconic annual cookie sale — and they’ve had fun, developed valuable life skills, and made their communities better places every step of the way.

Juliette Gordon Low founded the United States Girl Scouts in 1912, and the Mistletoe Troop in Muskogee, Oklahoma first began baking cookies in its high school cafeteria as a service project shortly thereafter. The Girl Scouts began selling cookies to finance troop activities around 1917.

In July 1922, The American Girl magazine, published by Girl Scouts of the USA, featured an article by Florence E. Neil, a local director in Chicago, Illinois. Miss Neil provided a cookie recipe that had been given to the 2,000 Girl Scouts in her council. She estimated the approximate cost of ingredients for six- to seven-dozen cookies to be 26 to 36 cents. The cookies, she suggested, could be sold by troops for 25 or 30 cents per dozen.

In 1933, Girl Scouts from the Greater Philadelphia Council baked cookies and sold them from the windows of the city’s gas and electric company. The price was just 23 cents for a box of 44 cookies, or six boxes for $1.24! These girls developed their marketing and business skills and raised funds for their local Girl Scout council. A year later, Greater Philadelphia took cookie sales to the next level, becoming the first council to sell commercially baked cookies.

In 1935, the Girl Scout Federation of Greater New York raised money through the sale of commercially baked cookies. Buying its own die in the shape of a trefoil, the group used the words “Girl Scout Cookies” on the box. In 1936, the national Girl Scout organization began the process of licensing the first commercial bakers to produce cookies that would be sold nationwide by girls in Girl Scout councils.

Enthusiasm for Girl Scout Cookies spread nationwide. By 1937, more than 125 Girl Scout councils reported holding cookie sales. In 1951, Girl Scout Cookies came in three varieties: Sandwich, Shortbread, and Chocolate Mints (now known as Thin Mints). By 1966, a number of additional varieties were available. Among the best sellers were Chocolate Mints, Shortbread, and Peanut Butter Sandwich cookies. Girl Scout Cookies for sale during the 1970s included Thin Mints, Do-si-dos, and Trefoils, plus four other choices.

Early in the twenty-first century, several more improvements were made to the cookie program. New cookie box designs, introduced in fall of 2000, were bold and bright, capturing the spirit of Girl Scouting. Two licensed bakers produced a maximum of eight varieties, and all cookies were kosher. And, much to the excitement of our youngest Girl Scouts, Daisies started selling cookies. Daisies will benefit greatly from participating in this valuable activity.
 
How does the first paragraph of the passage relate to the rest of the passage?

A
The first paragraph mentions a specific viewpoint on a topic, and the other paragraphs present background information on this topic.
B
The first paragraph gives a general overview, and the remaining paragraphs provide a sequential development of that idea.
C
The first paragraph provides a thesis statement, and the rest of the paragraphs attempt to persuade the reader to agree with that thesis.
D
The first paragraph describes a plan of action, and the rest of the paragraphs provide a chronological review of that plan.
Question 28 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The first paragraph introduces the main idea — the nearly 100-year-old annual Girl Scout cookie sale. The remaining paragraphs sequentially describe the events that took place across those 100 years. Regarding the other answer choices, the tone is descriptive rather than persuasive, the passage lacks a thesis and a plan of action, and the viewpoint of the author is interested but not emphatic.
Question 29

A Study in Scarlet

Sherlock Holmes’ ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar System. That any civilized human being in this nineteenth century should not be aware that the earth travelled round the sun appeared to me to be such an extraordinary fact that I could hardly realize it.

“You appear to be astonished,” he said, smiling at my expression of surprise. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.”

“To forget it!”

“You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skilful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System!” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
Which of the following words best describes the narrator's feelings about the "ignorance" of Sherlock Holmes?

A
Amusement
B
Shock
C
Fright
D
Disdain
Question 29 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The words "surprise" and "astonished" are used to describe the narrator's feelings, suggesting that he is shocked by what he is learning about Holmes. The exclamation points in the text also indicate the feeling of shock.
Question 30

A Study in Scarlet

Sherlock Holmes’ ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar System. That any civilized human being in this nineteenth century should not be aware that the earth travelled round the sun appeared to me to be such an extraordinary fact that I could hardly realize it.

“You appear to be astonished,” he said, smiling at my expression of surprise. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.”

“To forget it!”

“You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skilful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System!” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
Why does Holmes want to forget the Copernican Theory?

A
He doesn't believe that it's true
B
His brain is too jumbled to remember it
C
He thinks it is relevant to his work
D
It will take up space in his brain, but won't help him with his work
Question 30 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Holmes states that he does not want "useless facts elbowing out the useful ones." He also claims that the new knowledge will not make “a difference to me or to my work.”
Question 31

A Study in Scarlet

Sherlock Holmes’ ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar System. That any civilized human being in this nineteenth century should not be aware that the earth travelled round the sun appeared to me to be such an extraordinary fact that I could hardly realize it.

“You appear to be astonished,” he said, smiling at my expression of surprise. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.”

“To forget it!”

“You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skilful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System!” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
What is Holmes referring to when he mentions “lumber of every sort?”

A
Furniture
B
Useless information
C
A large assortment of tools
D
All types of knowledge
Question 31 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Holmes is comparing the brain with an attic. He says, "A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things..." In his analogy he is comparing lumber to knowledge, and contends that the fool takes in lumber of every sort, meaning all types of knowledge.
Question 32

A Study in Scarlet

Sherlock Holmes’ ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar System. That any civilized human being in this nineteenth century should not be aware that the earth travelled round the sun appeared to me to be such an extraordinary fact that I could hardly realize it.

“You appear to be astonished,” he said, smiling at my expression of surprise. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.”

“To forget it!”

“You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skilful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System!” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
How did the narrator find out that Holmes was unaware of the Copernican Theory?

A
By chance
B
He was questioning him to test his knowledge of science
C
It was mentioned by Thomas Carlyle
D
It came up in a debate
Question 32 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). The narrator remarks that he “found incidentally that [Holmes] was ignorant of the Copernican Theory.” Incidentally means accidentally or by chance.
Question 33

A Study in Scarlet

Sherlock Holmes’ ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar System. That any civilized human being in this nineteenth century should not be aware that the earth travelled round the sun appeared to me to be such an extraordinary fact that I could hardly realize it.

“You appear to be astonished,” he said, smiling at my expression of surprise. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.”

“To forget it!”

“You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skilful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System!” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
Read this sentence from the passage:

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
What can the reader infer from this sentence?

A
Holmes is angry that the narrator keeps interrupting him
B
Holmes is not as smart as he believes he is
C
Holmes does not believe that the Earth revolves around the sun
D
Holmes only keeps knowledge that he deems valuable
Question 33 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). Throughout the passage, Holmes is attempting to explain to the narrator that the human mind is finite, and so he has to “forget” certain types of knowledge in order to preserve space in his brain for knowledge that is useful for his work. The narrator believes knowledge about the Solar System is essential, but Holmes, in this selection, reiterates to him that this knowledge would make no difference to his work and is therefore not important.
Question 34

A Study in Scarlet

Sherlock Holmes’ ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge. Of contemporary literature, philosophy and politics he appeared to know next to nothing. Upon my quoting Thomas Carlyle, he inquired in the naivest way who he might be and what he had done. My surprise reached a climax, however, when I found incidentally that he was ignorant of the Copernican Theory and of the composition of the Solar System. That any civilized human being in this nineteenth century should not be aware that the earth travelled round the sun appeared to me to be such an extraordinary fact that I could hardly realize it.

“You appear to be astonished,” he said, smiling at my expression of surprise. “Now that I do know it I shall do my best to forget it.”

“To forget it!”

“You see,” he explained, “I consider that a man’s brain originally is like a little empty attic, and you have to stock it with such furniture as you choose. A fool takes in all the lumber of every sort that he comes across, so that the knowledge which might be useful to him gets crowded out, or at best is jumbled up with a lot of other things, so that he has a difficulty in laying his hands upon it. Now the skilful workman is very careful indeed as to what he takes into his brain-attic. He will have nothing but the tools which may help him in doing his work, but of these he has a large assortment, and all in the most perfect order. It is a mistake to think that that little room has elastic walls and can distend to any extent. Depend upon it there comes a time when for every addition of knowledge you forget something that you knew before. It is of the highest importance, therefore, not to have useless facts elbowing out the useful ones.”

“But the Solar System!” I protested.

“What the deuce is it to me?” he interrupted impatiently: “you say that we go round the sun. If we went round the moon it would not make a pennyworth of difference to me or to my work.”
 
What is the overall purpose of this passage?

A
To contrast the intelligent narrator and the foolish Holmes
B
To show that Holmes is an unusual man who is focused on his work
C
To show that Holmes is naive
D
To demonstrate the importance of a well-rounded education
Question 34 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). The first sentence states that Holmes’s “ignorance was as remarkable as his knowledge.” The text does not describe Holmes as foolish or naive. It does highlight his unusual approach to storing relevant facts in his brain and the importance he places on his work is mentioned twice.
Question 35

The History of Architecture

The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals. Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art. Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture. We may, then, define architecture as the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.

The function of architecture take many forms. Architects have created buildings for shelter, worship, as embellishments for cities, homes of governments, and places for families to gather. Architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves more money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture. The Empire State Building, for example, was completed in 1931 for approximately $41 million (about $500 million in today's terms). It did not make a profit until 1950, which earned it the nickname the "Empty State Building." Quite a long-term investment for a piece of architecture!

The Empire State Building also makes a clear statement about the ideas of the early 1930s. It was constructed in true Art Deco style, shaped in tiered layers like a cake, and it had a roof that was capable of allowing multiple zeppelins to dock at once. Sadly, this futuristic fad never caught on, but the point is made nonetheless: buildings are a freeze-frame of the ideas and values of the time in which they were built.

It is the function of the architectural historian to trace the origin, growth, and decline of the architectural styles which have prevailed in different ages and civilizations. Where would we be without the columns typical of the Romans? What about the desired “open floor plan" that is today's modern home? Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own. To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
 
According to the passage, the history of architecture provides which of the following benefits?

A
Shelter
B
Employment
C
A record of civilization
D
A record of artistic taste
Question 35 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (C). Be sure to read the question carefully; it asks about the history of architecture and not architecture itself. Go back to the passage and look at the idea of the architectural historian. Choice (C) is supported by information in the first paragraph: “The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals.”
Question 36

The History of Architecture

The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals. Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art. Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture. We may, then, define architecture as the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.

The function of architecture take many forms. Architects have created buildings for shelter, worship, as embellishments for cities, homes of governments, and places for families to gather. Architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves more money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture. The Empire State Building, for example, was completed in 1931 for approximately $41 million (about $500 million in today's terms). It did not make a profit until 1950, which earned it the nickname the "Empty State Building." Quite a long-term investment for a piece of architecture!

The Empire State Building also makes a clear statement about the ideas of the early 1930s. It was constructed in true Art Deco style, shaped in tiered layers like a cake, and it had a roof that was capable of allowing multiple zeppelins to dock at once. Sadly, this futuristic fad never caught on, but the point is made nonetheless: buildings are a freeze-frame of the ideas and values of the time in which they were built.

It is the function of the architectural historian to trace the origin, growth, and decline of the architectural styles which have prevailed in different ages and civilizations. Where would we be without the columns typical of the Romans? What about the desired “open floor plan" that is today's modern home? Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own. To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
 
With which of the following statements about architecture would the author most likely agree?

A
An edifice built only for utility is a form of art due to the beauty of its simplicity.
B
A historian of architecture should only concern himself with aesthetics of the different architectural styles.
C
'Architectural style' refers to any design in which old-fashioned structure and decorations are employed.
D
Architecture blends aesthetic and utilitarian concerns as an art form.
Question 36 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). In the first paragraph the author says that architecture is 'the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.'
Question 37

The History of Architecture

The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals. Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art. Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture. We may, then, define architecture as the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.

The function of architecture take many forms. Architects have created buildings for shelter, worship, as embellishments for cities, homes of governments, and places for families to gather. Architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves more money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture. The Empire State Building, for example, was completed in 1931 for approximately $41 million (about $500 million in today's terms). It did not make a profit until 1950, which earned it the nickname the "Empty State Building." Quite a long-term investment for a piece of architecture!

The Empire State Building also makes a clear statement about the ideas of the early 1930s. It was constructed in true Art Deco style, shaped in tiered layers like a cake, and it had a roof that was capable of allowing multiple zeppelins to dock at once. Sadly, this futuristic fad never caught on, but the point is made nonetheless: buildings are a freeze-frame of the ideas and values of the time in which they were built.

It is the function of the architectural historian to trace the origin, growth, and decline of the architectural styles which have prevailed in different ages and civilizations. Where would we be without the columns typical of the Romans? What about the desired “open floor plan" that is today's modern home? Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own. To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
 
Which of the following sentences from the passage suggests that economic changes impact architecture?

A
Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture.
B
To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
C
Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own.
D
To do so, architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves greater outlays of money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture.
Question 37 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). This is an inference question. For this question, you will need to revisit the part of the passage that talks about the impact of the economy on architecture. The second paragraph does this. Line 11 states, “Architects have created buildings for pure shelter, for worship, embellishments for cities, homes…” and implies that all of these functions are made possible because of the economic investment of the community.
Question 38

The History of Architecture

The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals. Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art. Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture. We may, then, define architecture as the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.

The function of architecture take many forms. Architects have created buildings for shelter, worship, as embellishments for cities, homes of governments, and places for families to gather. Architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves more money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture. The Empire State Building, for example, was completed in 1931 for approximately $41 million (about $500 million in today's terms). It did not make a profit until 1950, which earned it the nickname the "Empty State Building." Quite a long-term investment for a piece of architecture!

The Empire State Building also makes a clear statement about the ideas of the early 1930s. It was constructed in true Art Deco style, shaped in tiered layers like a cake, and it had a roof that was capable of allowing multiple zeppelins to dock at once. Sadly, this futuristic fad never caught on, but the point is made nonetheless: buildings are a freeze-frame of the ideas and values of the time in which they were built.

It is the function of the architectural historian to trace the origin, growth, and decline of the architectural styles which have prevailed in different ages and civilizations. Where would we be without the columns typical of the Romans? What about the desired “open floor plan" that is today's modern home? Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own. To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
 
The passage's primary purpose is to?

A
Propose a new definition of 'architecture.'
B
Explain the significance of architecture and provide a framework for understanding it.
C
Mediate a disagreement about whether 'style' is the same thing as 'historical style.'
D
Recommend architecture be divorced from its historical context.
Question 38 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (B). Remember that after reading the passage, but before going to the questions, you should take a moment to think about the main idea, the author's attitude and approach to the topic, and the passage's structure. Keeping those things in mind and jotting down your conclusions as you read, will help you to answer a purpose question like this one. In this passage, the author explains what role architecture plays in society, and what historians of architecture must understand.
Question 39

The History of Architecture

The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals. Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art. Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture. We may, then, define architecture as the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.

The function of architecture take many forms. Architects have created buildings for shelter, worship, as embellishments for cities, homes of governments, and places for families to gather. Architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves more money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture. The Empire State Building, for example, was completed in 1931 for approximately $41 million (about $500 million in today's terms). It did not make a profit until 1950, which earned it the nickname the "Empty State Building." Quite a long-term investment for a piece of architecture!

The Empire State Building also makes a clear statement about the ideas of the early 1930s. It was constructed in true Art Deco style, shaped in tiered layers like a cake, and it had a roof that was capable of allowing multiple zeppelins to dock at once. Sadly, this futuristic fad never caught on, but the point is made nonetheless: buildings are a freeze-frame of the ideas and values of the time in which they were built.

It is the function of the architectural historian to trace the origin, growth, and decline of the architectural styles which have prevailed in different ages and civilizations. Where would we be without the columns typical of the Romans? What about the desired “open floor plan" that is today's modern home? Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own. To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
 
Read this sentence from the passage:

Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art.
 
What does the word devoid mean?

A
Lacking
B
Unified
C
Hinting
D
Condemned
Question 39 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (A). Devoid is an adjective meaning “entirely lacking” or “free from” something.
Question 40

The History of Architecture

The history of architecture is a true record of man’s efforts to leave behind something representing himself and his ideals. Don't mistake the term "architecture" as meaning just any building; the erection of structures devoid of beauty is mere wood or steel, a trade and not an art. Only when the idea of beauty is added to that of use does a structure take its place among works of architecture. We may, then, define architecture as the art which seeks to harmonize utility and beauty, form and function, together.

The function of architecture take many forms. Architects have created buildings for shelter, worship, as embellishments for cities, homes of governments, and places for families to gather. Architecture engages the services of a larger portion of the community and involves more money than any other occupation except perhaps agriculture. The Empire State Building, for example, was completed in 1931 for approximately $41 million (about $500 million in today's terms). It did not make a profit until 1950, which earned it the nickname the "Empty State Building." Quite a long-term investment for a piece of architecture!

The Empire State Building also makes a clear statement about the ideas of the early 1930s. It was constructed in true Art Deco style, shaped in tiered layers like a cake, and it had a roof that was capable of allowing multiple zeppelins to dock at once. Sadly, this futuristic fad never caught on, but the point is made nonetheless: buildings are a freeze-frame of the ideas and values of the time in which they were built.

It is the function of the architectural historian to trace the origin, growth, and decline of the architectural styles which have prevailed in different ages and civilizations. Where would we be without the columns typical of the Romans? What about the desired “open floor plan" that is today's modern home? Each style morphs into another, gradually, as the years go by, an evolution as subtle as our own. To study architectural styles is therefore to study beliefs and values of civilizations throughout history.
 
Overall, which of the following does the narrator seem most interested in thinking about?

A
The importance of the Art Deco movement
B
The lives of great architects
C
The aesthetic beauty of our architecture
D
The way in which we study our buildings
Question 40 Explanation: 
The correct answer is (D). The passage focuses on the history of architecture. The author is not just interested in the buildings themselves, but rather how we interpret and study them. He devotes the majority of his paragraphs to this discussion. Answer choices (A) and (C) are mentioned, but only as part of this larger discussion. No great architects are mentioned in the passage, so (B) cannot be correct.
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